More than 500 Academic Experts on Asian American Studies, Race, and Access to Education Submit Amicus Brief Supporting Race-Conscious College Admissions


More than 500 scholars (list below) holding doctorates in a wide range of academic fields, including education, Asian American studies, political science, economics, sociology, anthropology and psychology, have submitted an amicus curiae (friend-of-the-court) brief in support of Harvard University, in a case currently being considered by the U.S. District Court in Massachusetts.

The lawsuit was filed by Students for Fair Admissions (SFFA), an organization created by Edward Blum, who recruited Asian American plaintiffs in the case after he lost the last major challenge against affirmative action before the U.S. Supreme Court in Fisher v. University of Texas (2016). In the case, SFFA argues that Harvard’s limited consideration of race in its admissions process intentionally discriminates against Asian American applicants. The amicus brief supports the use of race-conscious whole-person review. The brief was filed today.

The brief, submitted by scholars with expertise on Asian American studies, race, and college access, draws upon amici’s original research and the most extensive and up-to-date body of knowledge relevant to the legal issues in the case. The brief addresses: (1) why Asian American applicants, like applicants of all races, benefit from Harvard’s whole-person review process; and (2) why SFFA’s arguments are based on racial myths and stereotypes of Asian Americans.


Contact authors of the brief:

Dr. OiYan Poon: 

Dr. Liliana Garces: 

Dr. Janelle Wong: 

Dr. Megan Segoshi: 

Dr. David Silver: 

Sarah Harrington, Esq.:

List of Amici Curiae

1.     Abajian, Suzie Orange County Department of Education
2.     Abes, Elisa Miami University
3.     Abrajano, Marisa University of California, San Diego
4.     Acevedo-Gil, Nancy California State University, San Bernardino
5.     Adamian, Annie California State University, Chico
6.     Agius Vallejo, Jody University of Southern California
7.     Agozino, Onwubiko Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
8.    Aguilar-Hernández, José M. California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
9.    Ali, Arshad George Washington University
10.  Alvarez, Cynthia L. University of California, Los Angeles
11.  Amechi, Mauriell University of Redlands
12.  Ampaw, Frimpomaa Central Michigan University
13.  Ananth, Akhila California State University, Los Angeles
14.  Anderson, Lauren Connecticut College
15.  Annamma, Subini University of Kansas
16.  Antonio, Anthony Stanford University
17.  Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene Metropolitan State University
18.  Aptekar, Sofya University of Massachusetts Boston
19.  Aquino Sosa, Gloria Saint Mary’s College of California
20.  Arao, Brian University of California, Santa Cruz
21.  Ardoin, Sonja Appalachian State University
22.  Arellano, Lucy Oregon State University
23.  Asato, Jolynn San Jose State University
24.  Assalone, Amanda Southern Education Foundation
25.  Au, Kathryn H. University of Hawaiʻi, Mānoa
26.  Austin, Algernon Demos
27.  Austin, Ann Michigan State University
28.  Baber, Lorenzo Iowa State University
29.  Bahena, Sofia University of Texas at San Antonio
30.  Ballysingh, Tracy University of Vermont
31.  Barnhardt, Cassie University of Iowa
32.  Barone, Ryan Colorado State University
33.  Basile, Vincent Colorado State University
34.  Bastedo, Michael University of Michigan
35.  Beatty, Cameron Florida State University
36.  Bengochea, Alain University of Nevada, Las Vegas
37.  Bensimon, Estela University of Southern California
38.  Berger, Joseph University of Massachusetts Boston
39.  Berliner, David Arizona State University
40.  Bernal, Jesse Grand Valley State University
41.  Bernardo, Joseph Loyola Marymount University
42.  Berrey, Ellen University of Toronto
43.  Berriz, Berta Lesley University
44.  Blockett, Reginald Grand Valley State University
45.  Bloom-Leiva, Gilda San Francisco State University
46.  Bondi, Stephanie University of Nebraska
47.  Borja, Melissa University of Michigan
48.  Boylan, Hunter Appalachian State University
49.  Brazelton, Grady Northern Arizona University
50.  Bukoski, Beth University of Texas at Austin
51.  Burciaga, Rebeca San Jose State University
52.  Byrd, Ajani Mission College
53.  Byrd, W. Carson University of Louisville
54.  Cabrera, Nolan University of Arizona
55.  Cain, Ebony Pepperdine University
56.  Calderon, Dolores Western Washington University
57.  Calderone, Shannon Washington State University
58.  Callahan, Rebecca University of Texas at Austin
59.  Camacho, Keith University of California, Los Angeles
60.  Camangian, Patrick University of San Francisco
61.  Cantor, Nancy Rutgers University-Newark
62.  Cantwell, Brendan Michigan State University
63.  Castillo-Montoya, Milagros University of Connecticut
64.  Castro Samayoa, Andrés Boston College
65.  Castro, Erin University of Utah
66.  Catalano, D. Chae Western Illinois University
67.  Chan, Jason Independent Scholar
68.  Chang, Benji Education University of Hong Kong
69.  Chao Romero, Robert University of California, Los Angeles
70.  Cheah, Charissa University of Maryland, Baltimore County
71.  Chen, Angela Pre-Health Dreamers
72.  Chen, Carolyn University of California, Berkeley
73.  Chen, Jondou University of Washington
74.  Chen, Stephanie Wright Institute
75.  Cheng, Jih-Fei Scripps College
76.  Cheung, Christabel University of Hawaiʻi, Mānoa
77.  Chiang, Warren Stanford University
78.  Chikkatur, Anita Carleton College
79.  Chin, Christina California State University, Fullerton
80.  Chin, Jean Lau Adelphi University
81.  Ching, Cheryl University of Massachusetts Boston
82.  Chow, Candace University of Utah
83.  Chung, Angie University at Albany
84.  Cintron-Vélez, Aixa Russell Sage Foundation
85.  Clark, Christine University of Nevada, Las Vegas
86.  Cohen, Sarah Loyola University Chicago
87.  Cokley, Kevin University of Texas at Austin
88.  Collins, Christopher Azusa Pacific University
89.  Conchas, Gilberto University of California, Irvine
90.  Cooper Stein, Kristy Michigan State University
91.  Covarrubias, Alejandro University of San Francisco
92.  Crisp, Gloria Oregon State University
93.  Cruz, Cindy University of California, Santa Cruz
94.  Cuellar, Marcela University of California, Davis
95.  Dache-Gerbino, Amalia University of Missouri
96.  Dancy, T. Elon University of Pittsburgh
97.  Danico, Mary California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
98.  Dao, Loan University of Massachusetts Boston
99.  Darling-Hammond, Linda Stanford University
100.    DasGupta, Debanuj University of Connecticut
101.    Davis III, Charles H.F. University of Southern California
102.    Davis, Tracy Western Illinois University
103.    DeAngelo, Linda University of Pittsburgh
104.    Deckman, Sherry Lehman College, City University of New York
105.    DeGuia, Vanessa Teach For America
106.    DeGuzman, Glenn University of California, Berkeley
107.    deGuzman, Jean-Paul University of California, Los Angeles
108.    Denson, Nida Western Sydney University
109.    Deo, Meera University of California, Davis
110.    Desai, Shruti McKendree University
111.    Dhingra, Pawan Amherst College
112.    Dineen-Wimberly, Ingrid University of La Verne
113.    Dotts, Brian University of Georgia
114.    Dowd, Alicia Pennsylvania State University
115.    Drezner, Noah Columbia University
116.    Duran, Richard P University of California, Santa Barbara
117.    Dwyer, Brighid Villanova University
118.    Dymski, Gary University of Leeds
119.    Eagan, Kevin University of California, Los Angeles
120.    Eaton, Susan Brandeis University
121.    Eaton, Paul Sam Houston State University
122.    Edejer, Eilene Loyola University Chicago
123.    Edwards Williams, Kirsten University of Oklahoma
124.    Edwards, Korie Ohio State University
125.    Embrick, David University of Connecticut
126.    Endo, Rachel University of Washington Tacoma
127.    Engberg, Mark University of Denver
128.    Espino, Michelle University of Maryland, College Park
129.    Fabionar, James University of San Diego
130.    Felder, Pamela Black Doctorates Matter
131.    Fernandes, Leela University of Michigan
132.    Fernandez, Frank University of Houston
133.    Fine, Michelle The Graduate Center, City University of New York
134.    Finnegan, Dorothy E. College of William and Mary
135.    Fiske, Susan Princeton University
136.    Flores, Stella New York University
137.    Fox, Heather University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
138.     Francisco-Menchavez, Valerie San Francisco State University
139.    Frankenberg, Erica Pennsylvania State University
140.    Frasure-Yokley, Lorrie University of California, Los Angeles
141.    Fried, Jane Central Connecticut State University
142.    Fries-Britt, Sharon University of Maryland, College Park
143.    Fujimoto, Eugene California State University, Fullerton
144.    Fultz, Michael University of Wisconsin – Madison
145.    Furr, Sara University of Chicago
146.    Gándara, Patricia University of California, Los Angeles
147.    Garces, Liliana M. University of Texas at Austin
148.    Garcia Bedolla, Lisa University of California, Berkeley
149.    Garcia, Crystal Auburn University
150.    Garcia, Jennifer Loyola Marymount University
151.    Garibay, Juan University of Virginia
152.    Gasman, Marybeth University of Pennsylvania
153.    Gee, Gilbert University of California, Los Angeles
154.    George Mwangi, Chrystal University of Massachusetts Amherst
155.    George, Casey University of Louisville
156.    Geron, Kim California State University, East Bay
157.    Giani, Matthew University of Texas at Austin
158.    Gilbert, Aliza Highland Park High School
159.    Gilkerson, Tammeil Laney College
160.    Gin, Kevin Holy Names University
161.    Gina, Garcia University of Pittsburgh
162.    Ginsberg, Ricki Colorado State University
163.    Gonzales, Leslie Michigan State University
164.    Goodman, Kathleen Miami University
165.    Gordon da Cruz, Cynthia Chabot College
166.    Goyette, Kimberly Temple University
167.    Grande, Sandy Connecticut College
168.    Graves, Joseph Joint School of Nanosciences & Nanoengineering,

North Carolina AT&T State University &

The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

169.    Griffin, Kimberly University of Maryland, College Park
170.    Guido, Florence University of Northern Colorado
171.    Gurin, Patricia University of Michigan
172.    Gutierrez, Kris University of California, Berkeley
173.    Hakuta, Kenji Stanford University
174.    Hall, Aris Clemson University
175.    Hall, Gordon University of Oregon
176.    Han, Hahrie University of California, Santa Barbara
177.    Hancock Alfaro, Ange-Marie University of Southern California
178.    Hardie, Jessica Hunter College, City University of New York
179.    Harper, Shaun University of Southern California
180.    Hart, Jeni University of Missouri
181.    Hartlep, Nicholas Metropolitan State University
182.    Haslerig, Siduri University of Oklahoma
183.    Hatch-Tocaimaza, Deryl University of Nebraska
184.    Heller, Donald University of San Francisco
185.    Hernandez, Xavier University of California, Irvine
186.    Hildebrandt, Melanie Indiana University of Pennsylvania
187.    Hillman, Nicholas University of Wisconsin – Madison
188.    Hinchey, Patricia Pennsylvania State University
189.    Hirschman, Daniel Brown University
190.    Holme, Jennifer University of Texas at Austin
191.    Hom, Delia Cheung Northeastern University
192.    Horn, Catherine University of Houston
193.    Hornak, Anne Central Michigan University
194.    Houston, Derek University of Oklahoma
195.    Hsieh, Betina California State University, Long Beach
196.    Hsin, Amy Queens College, City University of New York
197.    Hsu, Madeline University of Texas at Austin
198.    Hudson, Tara Kent State University
199.    Hughes, Bryce Montana State University
200.    Humphries, Marisha University of Illinois at Chicago
201.    Hung, Yun-Ting Metropolitan State University
202.    Huo, Yuen University of California, Los Angeles
203.    Hurtado, Sylvia University of California, Los Angeles
204.    Inman, Arpana Lehigh University
205.    Ishimaru, Ann M. University of Washington
206.    Iverson, Susan Manhattanville College
207.    Jain, Dimpal California State University, Northridge
208.    Jayakumar, Uma University of California, Riverside
209.    Jenkins, DeMarcus University of Arizona
210.    Jeung, Russell San Francisco State University
211.    Jez, Su Jin California State University, Sacramento
212.    Johnson, Dawn Syracuse University
213.    Johnson, Matthew Central Michigan University
214.    Johnson, Royel Pennsylvania State University
215.    Johnston-Guerrero, Marc Ohio State University
216.    Jones, B. Noble University of Georgia
217.    Jourian, TJ Oakland University
218.    Junn, Jane University of Southern California
219.    Kanagala, Vijay University of Vermont
220.    Kang, Miliann University of Massachusetts Amherst
221.    Kawakyu O’Connor, Nahoko University of Rochester
222.    Kelly, Bridget University of Maryland, College Park
223.    Ken, Ivy George Washington University
224.    Kezar, Adrianna University of Southern California
225.    Kiang, Peter University of Massachusetts Boston
226.    Killen, Melanie University of Maryland, College Park
227.    Kim, Barbara California State University, Long Beach
228.    Kim, Jung Lewis University
229.    Kim, Nadia Loyola Marymount University
230.    Kim, Richard University of California, Davis
231.    Kim, Stephanie Georgetown University
232.    King, M. Bruce University of Wisconsin – Madison
233.    Kinzie, Jillian Indiana University Bloomington
234.    Kiuhara, Sharlene University of Utah
235.    Klasik, Daniel George Washington University
236.    Klemencic, Manja Harvard University
237.    Kodama, Corinne University of Illinois at Chicago
238.    Kohli, Rita University of California, Riverside
239.    Kokka, Kari University of Pittsburgh
240.    Kondo, Dorinne University of Southern California
241.    Kornhaber, Mindy Pennsylvania State University
242.    Kortegast, Carrie Northern Illinois University
243.    Kousser, J. Morgan California Institute of Technology
244.    Kumashiro, Kevin Independent Scholar
245.    Kwan, Yvonne San Jose State University
246.    Kwon, Hyeyoung Indiana University Bloomington
247.    Kwon, Yaejoon Independent Scholar
248.    Lachica Buenavista, Tracy California State University, Northridge
249.    Lai, James Santa Clara University
250.    Lau, Anna University of California, Los Angeles
251.    Lau, Chrissy Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi
252.    Le, C.N. University of Massachusetts Amherst
253.    Ledesma, María University of Utah
254.    Lee Tu, Dawn De Anza College
255.    Lee, C. Aujean University of Oklahoma
256.    Lee, Fred University of Connecticut
257.    Lee, Jennifer Columbia University
258.    Lee, Jenny University of Arizona
259.    Lee, Richard University of Minnesota
260.    Lee, Stacey University of Wisconsin – Madison
261.    Lehman, Kathleen J. University of California, Los Angeles
262.    Lehr, Jane California Polytechnic State University
263.    Lester, Jaime George Mason University
264.    Leung, Maxwell California College of the Arts
265.    Lewis, Amanda University of Illinois at Chicago
266.    Lewis, Consuella Concordia University Portland
267.    Lewis, Maria Pennsylvania State University
268.    Li, Amy University of Northern Colorado
269.    Lien, Pei-te University of California, Santa Barbara
270.    Linde, Robyn Rhode Island College
271.    Longerbeam, Susan University of Louisville
272.    Lopez, Francesca University of Arizona
273.    Louie, Vivian William T. Grant Foundation
274.    Lu, Charles University of California, San Diego
275.    Lugg, Catherine Rutgers University
276.    Lui, Joyce San Jose City College
277.    Luie, Siu Ming Northeastern University
278.    MacLachlan, Anne University of California, Berkeley
279.    Maeda, Daryl University of Colorado Boulder
280.    Maira, Sunaina University of California, Davis
281.    Malone, Mei-Ling California State University, Fullerton
282.    Manzano, Lester Loyola University Chicago
283.    Maramba, Dina Claremont Graduate University
284.    Marcus, Ann New York University
285.    Marin, Patricia Michigan State University
286.    Marine, Susan B. Merrimack College
287.    Marquez Kiyama, Judy University of Denver
288.    Marsh, Tyson Seattle University
289.    Martin, Georgianna University of Georgia
290.    Martin, Isaac University of California, San Diego
291.    Martinez Aleman, Ana M. Boston College
292.    Martinez, Brandon Providence College
293.    Martinez, Danny C. University of California, Davis
294.    Martinez, Eligio Claremont Graduate University
295.    Martinez, Magdalena University of Nevada, Las Vegas
296.    Martinez, Melissa Texas State University
297.    Martínez, Ramón Stanford University
298.    Masuoka, Natalie University of California, Los Angeles
299.    Mattheis, Allison California State University, Los Angeles
300.    Mayer, Anysia California State University, Stanislaus
301.    Mayorga, Edwin Swarthmore College
302.    McClellan, George University of Mississippi
303.    McClintock, Charles Fielding Graduate University
304.    McDermott, Kathryn University of Massachusetts Amherst
305.    McDonough, Patricia M. University of California, Los Angeles
306.    McEwen, Marylu University of Maryland, College Park
307.    McGowan, Brian University of North Carolina at Greensboro
308.    McGuire, Keon Arizona State University
309.    McLaughlin, Conor Bowling Green State University
310.    Means, Darris University of Georgia
311.    Mendoza-Reis, Noni San Jose State University
312.    Merseth, Julie Lee Northwestern University
313.    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin University of North Carolina at Charlotte
314.    Milano, Joy Michigan State University
315.    Milem, Jeffrey University of California, Santa Barbara
316.    Mintz, Beth University of Vermont
317.    Mirra, Nicole Rutgers University
318.    Mistry, Rashmita University of California, Los Angeles
319.    Mitra, Dana Pennsylvania State University
320.    Mobley, Jr., Steve University of Alabama
321.    Moore, Helen University of Nebraska
322.    Morales, Erica California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
323.    Morales, P. Zitlali University of Illinois at Chicago
324.    Morgan, Demetri Loyola University Chicago
325.    Morgan, Zachary California Institute of the Arts
326.    Moses, Michele University of Colorado Boulder
327.    Moses, Yolanda University of California, Riverside
328.    Motha, Suhanthie University of Washington
329.    Munoz, Susana Colorado State University
330.    Museus, Samuel University of California, San Diego
331.    Myers, Kit University of California, Merced
332.    Nakae, Sunny Loyola University Chicago
333.    Nakagawa, Kathryn Arizona State University
334.    Nakano, Dana California State University, Stanislaus
335.    Nam, Victoria California State University, Monterey Bay
336.    Narui, Mitsu Capital University
337.    Navarro, Oscar California Polytechnic State University
338.    Negrón-Gonzales, Genevieve University of San Francisco
339.    Nelson Laird, Thomas Indiana University Bloomington
340.    Nelson, Chris University of Denver
341.    Ngo, Bic University of Minnesota
342.    Ngo, Federick University of Nevada, Las Vegas
343.    Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly Lewis & Clark College
344.    Nguyen, David Hoa Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis
345.    Nguyen, Thai-Huy Seattle University
346.    Nicolazzo, Z University of Arizona
347.    Nienhusser, H. Kenny University of Connecticut
348.    Nieto, Sonia University of Massachusetts Amherst
349.    Noah, Aggie Arizona State University
350.    Noguera, Pedro University of California, Los Angeles
351.    Noh, Eliza California State University, Fullerton
352.    Oakes, Jeannie University of California, Los Angeles
353.    Obear, Kathy Center for Transformation and Change
354.    Ocampo, Anthony California State Polytechnic University, Pomona
355.    Oda, Meredith University of Nevada, Reno
356.    Okamoto, Dina Indiana University
357.    Oliva, Maricela University of Texas at San Antonio
358.    Olivas, Michael A. University of Houston
359.    Oluwole, Joseph Montclair State University
360.    Ong, Paul University of California, Los Angeles
361.    Ono, Kent University of Utah
362.    Orfield, Gary University of California, Los Angeles
363.    Orphan, Cecilia University of Denver
364.    Oseguera, Leticia Pennsylvania State University
365.    Ozaki, Casey (Carolyn) University of North Dakota
366.    Pacheco, Denise University of California, Los Angeles
367.    Padios, Jan University of Maryland, College Park
368.    Paguyo, Christina University of Denver
369.    Park, Jerry Baylor University
370.    Park, John University of California, Santa Barbara
371.    Park, Moises Baylor University
372.    Parker, Eugene University of Kansas
373.    Parker, Tara University of Massachusetts Boston
374.    Parreñas, Rhacel University of Southern California
375.    Patel, Leigh University of Pittsburgh
376.    Patraporn, Varisa California State University, Long Beach
377.    Patton Davis, Lori Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis
378.    Pendakur, Sumun University of Southern California
379.    Perez II, David Miami University
380.    Perez, Patricia A. California State University, Fullerton
381.    Perez, Rosemary Iowa State University
382.    Perez-Felkner, Lara Florida State University
383.    Perna, Laura University of Pennsylvania
384.    Pham, Minh-Ha University of California, Berkeley
385.    Poon, OiYan Colorado State University
386.    Pope, Raechele University at Buffalo
387.    Porter, Christa Kent State University
388.    Posselt, Julie University of Southern California
389.    Powers, Jeanne M. Arizona State University
390.    Quintanar, Rosalinda San Jose State University
391.    Ramirez, Hiram California State University, Channel Islands
392.    Ramirez, Ricardo University of Notre Dame
393.    Ramirez-Stapleton, Marcela University of California, Irvine
394.    Ramos, Aida George Fox University
395.    Ramos, Delma University of North Carolina at Greensboro
396.    Reddick, Richard J. University of Texas at Austin
397.    Renée Valladares, Michelle University of Colorado Boulder
398.    Rennick, Liz University of Arizona
399.    Reyes, Pedro University of Texas at Austin
400.    Reynolds, Amy University at Buffalo
401.    Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani University of Missouri, Kansas City
402.    Rincón, Blanca University of Nevada, Las Vegas
403.    Rios Aguilar, Cecilia University of California, Los Angeles
404.    Rivera, Gwendelyn University of Southern California
405.    Ro, Hyun Kyoung (Hyunny) Bowling Green State University
406.    Robbins, Claire Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
407.    Roberts, Maria University of Nevada, Las Vegas
408.    Rodríguez, Noreen Iowa State University
409.    Rodriguez, Robyn University of California, Davis
410.    Rodriguez-Kiino, Diane California Lutheran University
411.    Rooks, Curtiss Loyola Marymount University
412.    Ropers-Huilman, Rebecca University of Minnesota
413.    Rosiek, Gerald University of Oregon
414.    Rowan-Kenyon, Heather Boston College
415.    Rubin, Paul University of Utah
416.    Ruck, Martin The Graduate Center, City University of New York
417.    Sablan, Jenna University of Maryland, College Park
418.    Saenz, Victor University of Texas at Austin
419.    Saito, Leland University of Southern California
420.    Sallee, Margaret University at Buffalo
421.    Saw, Anne DePaul University
422.    Schramm-Pate, Susan University of Southern California
423.    Schuster, Maximilian University of Pittsburgh
424.    Scott, Janelle University of California, Berkeley
425.    Segal, Marcia Texler Indiana University Southeast
426.    Segoshi, Megan Independent Scholar
427.    Serna, Gabriel Michigan State University
428.    Sewell, Christopher Williams College
429.    Shallish, Lauren College of New Jersey
430.    Sharma, Nitasha Northwestern University
431.    Shek, Yen Ling University of California, Los Angeles
432.    Shelton, Leslie University of Arkansas
433.    Shih, Kristy California State University, Long Beach
434.    Siegel-Hawley, Genevieve Virginia Commonwealth University
435.    Silver, David RTI
436.    Sipma-Dysico, Carlene Lewis University
437.    Snyder, Seth Carleton College
438.    Sohoni, Deenesh College of William and Mary
439.    Solorzano, Daniel University of California, Los Angeles
440.    Soria, Krista University of Minnesota
441.    Spickard, Paul University of California, Santa Barbara
442.    Squire, Dian Northern Arizona University
443.    Stapleton, Lissa California State University, Northridge
444.    Stearns, Elizabeth University of North Carolina at Charlotte
445.    Stewart, Abigail University of Michigan
446.    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus Colorado State University
447.    Stovall, David University of Illinois at Chicago
448.    Strolovitch, Dara Princeton University
449.    Strunk, Kamden Auburn University
450.    Sule, Thandi Oakland University
451.    Sun, Jeffrey University of Louisville
452.    Sun-Hee Park, Lisa University of California, Santa Barbara
453.    Sze, Julie University of California, Davis
454.    Szpara, Michelle Y. Cabrini University
455.    Takagi, Dana University of California, Santa Cruz
456.    Talusan, Liza A. Independent Scholar
457.    Tanaka, Gregory Center for the Study of Democracy and Social Change
458.    Tang, Eric University of Texas at Austin
459.    Taylor, Amanda American University
460.    Taylor, Betty Jeanne University of Texas at Austin
461.    Terriquez, Veronica University of California, Santa Cruz
462.    Terry, La Mont Occidental College
463.    Thompson Dorsey, Dana University of Pittsburgh
464.    Tichavakunda, Antar University of Cincinnati
465.    Tieken, Mara Bates College
466.    Tienda, Marta Princeton University
467.    Tierney, William University of Southern California
468.    Tillapaugh, Daniel California Lutheran University
469.    Tom, Joshua Seattle Pacific University
470.    Tran, Hoang Florida Atlantic University
471.    Tran, Van Columbia University
472.    Trieu, Monica Purdue University
473.    Tsing, Anna University of California, Santa Cruz
474.    Tuck, Eve University of Toronto
475.    Tuitt, Frank University of Denver
476.    Turman, Natasha Miami University Ohio
477.    Turner, Caroline Sacramento State University
478.    Umemoto, Karen University of California, Los Angeles
479.    Valadez, Concepcion University of California, Los Angeles
480.    Valencia, Richard University of Texas at Austin
481.    Valladares, Siomara University of Colorado Boulder
482.    Vang, Ma University of California, Merced
483.    Varghese, Manka University of Washington
484.    Vasquez Heilig, Julian California State University, Sacramento
485.    Vélez, Verónica Western Washington University
486.    Venegas, Kristan University of Southern California
487.    Villanueva, George Loyola University Chicago
488.    Vo, Anne University of Southern California
489.    Vo, Linda University of California, Irvine
490.    Vue, Rican Oregon State University
491.    Wallace, Sophia University of Washington
492.    Walsh, Erin Bryn Mawr College
493.    Wang, Leslie University of Massachusetts Boston
494.    Wang, Oliver California State University, Long Beach
495.    Ward, LaWanda Pennsylvania State University
496.    Warren, Mark University of Massachusetts Boston
497.    Watanabe, Paul University of Massachusetts Boston
498.    Waters, Mary Harvard University
499.    Weidman, John University of Pittsburgh
500.    Welner, Kevin University of Colorado Boulder
501.    Wilson, Terri S. University of Colorado Boulder
502.    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle University of Wisconsin – Madison
503.    Wolf, De’Sha Portland State University
504.    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa University of Kansas
505.    Wolniak, Gregory University of Georgia
506.    Wong, Janelle University of Maryland, College Park
507.    Wong, Tom K. University of California, San Diego
508.    Wright, Dwayne Savannah Law School
509.    Wright, Erin Kahunawaikaʻala University of Hawaiʻi, Mānoa
510.    Wu, Ellen Indiana University Bloomington
511.    Wu, Judy University of California, Irvine
512.    Wun, Connie Transformative Research
513.    Yamamura, Erica Seattle University
514.    Yamashiro, Jane Mills College
515.    Yao, Christina University of Nebraska
516.    Yee, Barbara University of Hawaiʻi, Mānoa
517.    Yee, Jennifer California State University, Fullerton
518.    Yeung, Fanny California State University, East Bay
519.    Yi Borromeo, Varaxy California State University, Fresno
520.    Yoon, Irene University of Utah
521.    York, Travis Association of Public & Land-Grant Universities
522.    Young, Cynthia Ann Pennsylvania State University
523.    Yun, John Michigan State University
524.    Zamani-Gallaher, Eboni University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
525.    Zane, Nolan University of California, Davis
526.    Zatz, Marjorie S. University of California, Merced
527.    Zentella, Ana Celia University of California, San Diego
528.    Zerquera, Desiree University of San Francisco
529.    Zhou, Min University of California, Los Angeles
530.    Zulueta, Benjamin University of California, Santa Barbara
531.    Zúñiga, Ximena University of Massachusetts Amherst



We are Southeast Asian American Students, and we Support Race-Conscious Admissions at Harvard and Beyond

Luke Kertcher is an undergraduate student at the University of Pennsylvania. Trinh Truong is an undergraduate student at Yale University. This was originally posted on, the website of the Progressive Vietnamese American Organization (PIVOT).

Like 20% of our classmates at Yale and Penn, we are Asian American students attending Ivy League schools.

One of us graduated from a public school in the rural Midwest, where only a handful of Asian Americans were enrolled. The other attended a high-needs, urban public school in upstate New York, where more than 47 languages were spoken by a student body comprised mainly of refugees and immigrants. One of us had no standardized test preparation beyond poorly resourced teachers printing past exams. The other is lucky to have been included in a limited-enrollment college preparation program for low-income students that offered test preparation. Both of us are first-generation, Vietnamese American college students receiving substantial amounts of financial aid.

Edward Blum, a conservative activist who has previously attacked the Voting Rights Act and worked to disenfranchise immigrant voters, is now claiming to be on the side of Asian American students like us. Blum’s organization, Students for Fair Admissions (SFFA), is suing Harvard for discrimination against Asian Americans. The anti-affirmative action plaintiffs argue that consideration of many factors, including race, in college admissions disproportionately hurts Asian American applicants. If admissions were based on academic measures alone, Blum claims, more Asian Americans would be admitted to elite colleges like Harvard, or Yale, or Penn.

Blum and SFFA perpetuate a narrative that claims schools like Harvard engage in racial bias by assigning Asian Americans lower “personal scores” than other applicants. But the personal score is not a “personality” test. More accurately, the personal score is part of a holistic review process that considers students’ personal histories and unique circumstances—aspects of a student that are not effectively captured by standardized tests. These are exactly the aspects of our lives that we sought to emphasize in our applications. The Trump administration and the Department of Justice have also expressed support for ending whole person review, instead supporting the use of metrics like test scores and GPA alone.

However, reducing applicants to purely numeric standards doesn’t help Asian American students like us. Rather, it erases our rich ethnic and racial histories—who we are as people. Expert analyses from both sides of the case show that the elimination of non-quantifiable factors in college admissions would have a devastating effect on Black and Latino students’ enrollment. Economist David Card, who is working on the Harvard case, has shown that relying on academic criteria alone benefits white students most and Asian American students negligibly.

Moreover, standardized test scores and grade points are not free from racial bias. Studies have shown that higher scores correlate with higher socioeconomic status. Data aggregation also obscures the interethnic disparities within the Asian American community, rendering our educational system blind to those facing the most systemic disadvantage.

When Blum and his supporters stereotype all Asian Americans as the same, they dehumanize us and obscure diversity within our Asian American community. While most Asian American applicants are of Chinese and Indian origin, a minority have heritage from Southeast Asian and many other Asian countries. Those from places like Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos are much more likely to identify as limited English proficient, live in poverty, come from households with lower levels of educational attainment, and confront gang violence at higher rates than other Asian Americans.

However, this history is forgotten and erased under the predominant stereotype of the model minority. Janelle Wong, a political scientist studying Asian American civic life, traces the origins of this model to the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 that instituted meritocratic, “selective recruitment” policies based on occupational skills, education, and family reunification that have become the cornerstones of contemporary immigration law. As a result, all Asian Americans are perceived as test-taking aces due to some innate racial quality, but this is not our story. Our immigration narrative begins not with selective economic migration, but with the Vietnam War, the Secret War in Laos, the rise of the Khmer Rouge, and the subsequent exodus of refugees from mainland Southeast Asia.

Ed Blum and SFFA don’t represent us or our interests. As two Vietnamese American students, we have benefited from holistic admission policies that considered our families’ unique immigration histories and socioeconomic backgrounds instead of just our imperfect test scores. Because of affirmative action and holistic review that considered factors like our racial and ethnic backgrounds, Yale and Penn were able to see us as more than just numbers, but as high achievers with unique experiences and perspectives capable of contributing to our campus communities.

One of us is the son of a refugee who fled South Vietnam on a boat in 1975. The other is a more recent political refugee from South Vietnam resettled in 2001. Both of us are in the United States because of the historical legacy of the Vietnam War and the mass refugee resettlement of more than three million Southeast Asian refugees that occurred in its wake. Many of these individuals–including our families–were resettled without adequate access to education, housing, and healthcare, creating generational poverty, violence, and trauma.

Students with experiences like us will be excluded if holistic admissions and affirmative action policies are eliminated.

In an era where the definition of who belongs in America and who gets access to its institutions is in flux, this case becomes about more than just Harvard University and Asian Americans. An attack on affirmative action is an attack on racial justice, social mobility, and immigrants.

More than 150 Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Organizations Support Affirmative Action in Higher Education

The National Council of Asian Pacific Americans (NCAPA) and 25 of its national member organizations* stand for equal opportunity and joined an open letter of more than 150 Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) groups to support affirmative action in higher education.

This letter is in response to recent anti-affirmative action administrative complaints filed against Brown, Dartmouth, and Yale universities. The letter emphasizes that affirmative action does not constitute quotas, limit students of any ethnic or racial backgrounds, or discriminate against Asian Americans. Rather, affirmative action promotes equal opportunity for all.

“The National Council of Asian Pacific Americans joins 25 of our members, other AANHPI groups and communities of color to support affirmative action in higher education,” said NCAPA National Director Christopher Kang. “Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders benefit from being in diverse communities, and diversity makes our nation stronger. We cannot demand equal opportunity in our boardrooms, in government, and in the media, and then turn around and oppose affirmative action in higher education. Our community will not be used as a wedge against access to higher education.”

The Supreme Court also is expected to rule soon in the Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin case, which is a constitutional challenge to the University of Texas at Austin’s equal opportunity admissions policy. NCAPA has joined an amicus brief in this case. On the day of the Supreme Court’s oral arguments, NCAPA urged the Supreme Court to uphold the admissions program, and Kang spoke at a National Action Network rally.

Read today’s letter, learn more about affirmative action and show your support here.

*The 25 NCAPA members who signed on are: Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum (APIAHF), Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA), Asian Americans Advancing Justice – AAJC, Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance, AFL-CIO (APALA), Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL), Association of Asian Pacific Community Health Organizations (AAPCHO), Center for APA Women (CAPAW), Center for Asian American Media (CAAM), Council for Native Hawaiian Advancement (CNHA), Hmong National Development (HND), Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), Laotian American National Alliance (LANA), Leadership Education for Asian Pacifics, Inc. (LEAP), National Asian American Pacific Islander Mental Health Association (NAAPIMHA), National Asian Pacific American Bar Association (NAPABA), National Asian Pacific American Families Against Substance Abuse (NAPAFASA), National Asian Pacific American Women’s Forum (NAPAWF), National Coalition for Asian Pacific American Community Development (National CAPACD), National Council of Asian Pacific Islander Physicians (NCAPIP), National Federation of Filipino American Associations (NaFFAA), National Korean American Service and Education Consortium (NAKASEC), National Queer Asian Pacific Islander Alliance (NQAPIA), OCA – Asian Pacific American Advocates, South Asian Americans Leading Together (SAALT), and Southeast Asia Resource Action Center (SEARAC).

Based in Washington, D.C., the National Council of Asian Pacific Americans is a coalition of 35 national Asian Pacific American organizations that serves to represent the interests of Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) communities and to provide a national voice for our communities’ concerns. Our communities are the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States, currently making up approximately six percent of the population.